Variety Registration Procedure in India
Each variety has to pass through 3 phases of evaluation. Breeders contribute their best entries on the basis of evaluation carried out in their local programmes for testing in the Initial Yield Evaluation Trial (IET) or Preliminary Yield Trial (PYT). These trials are organized in selected number of Places in each zone. Simultaneously, these entries are supplied to Pathologists to study their reaction to important diseases. Entries qualifying from yield, disease and quality point of view in IET/PYT are tested in the Uniform Regional Trials (URT). These trials are also called Advanced Varietal Trials (AVT) or Coordinated Varietal Trials (CVT). These trials are organized at a very large number of locations in each zone and the plot size is larger than that in IET. During the tests, reaction to various diseases, pests and quality traits are also studied. Entries found suitable in the second phase are again evaluated in the URT and simultaneously supplied to Pathologists, Entomologists, Nematologists, Agronomists and Quality Evaluation Groups to study the entries comprehensively for factors which are important from the point of view of their own discipline. Actual measurements are also made on other parameters. Agronomy group evaluates these entries for their adaptability to varied range of agronomic variables such as sowing dates, levels of fertilizers and number of irrigations etc. These are occasionally studied for their reaction to important herbicides. These tests are followed by a critical discussion in a crop workshop. A Special Committee of multi disciplinary scientists is constituted at the workshop to consider the proposals for identification of the varieties for release. Varieties evolved by the SAUs and Government Research Institutes are tested within the concerned States at limited locations. Central Seed Committee (CSC) pointed out in 1982 that varieties of State importance might also be tested in the concerned All India Crop Improvement Project. All the States are now submitting their samples for the coordinated trials though some have reservations of this decision. Concept of simultaneous testing of State varieties in the coordinated trials needs to be welcomed by the State Governments and their Research Institutes all over the country. Simultaneous testing of all State varieties along with the Central Varieties provides exposure to the State varieties to a wide range of environments. This will help to identify the varieties which are highly prone to diseases and pests and release of which may cause problems in some other States.
Identification of superior genotypes by Plant Breeder can benefit the public only if it is offered for commercial multiplication. It is therefore, necessary to maintain a system where quantities of promising genotype are made available for commercial production. This process is referred to as release of the varieties. The purpose of release system is to introduce newly evolved varieties to the public for general cultivation in the regions in which it is suitable. If serves as a guideline in the choice of varieties for cultivation in any region. The practice of official release of varieties started in October, 1964 with the formation of the Central Variety Release Committee (CVRC) at the Central level and State Variety Release Committee (SARC) at State level. CVRC functioned up to November, 1969 when its functions were taken over by the CSC established Seeds Act, 1966. The CSC constituted a Central Sub-committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Release of Varieties (CSC on CS, N&RV). The sub-committee discharges the functions of release and notification of varieties at Central level, while State Seed Sub-Committees (SSSCs) discharge similar function at State level. CSC and its Sub-committee have due representation for all the agencies involved in seed research, production and quality control namely State Governments, SCAs, SAUs, ICAR Institutes, Seed producing agency in public and private sector and seed farmers.